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In , he published The Psychopathology of Everyday Life which outlined hundreds of our normal daily activities which Freud used in explaining the influence of the unconscious mind. The unconscious mind has become central to the study of psychology. Motivation Psychologist William James at first used motivation to describe intention, with his concept having the similitude of will used in European philosophy. As Freudian and Darwinian thinking became more popular, researchers came to see instincts as a major source of motivation. As explained in drive theory, when the forces of instincts blend with a single source of energy, some form of constant influence is created.

They are of the opinion that forces like sexual instinct become infused and transmuted within the psyche. Classical psychoanalysis is often viewed as the struggle that exist between reality principle and pleasure principle, which is somewhat similar to id and ego. Shortly after that, Freud came up with the concept of death drive which he explained in Beyond the Pleasure Principle as a compulsion to behave destructively and aggressively when confronted with traumatic events. The fundamental motivation among most animals has always been thirst, hunger, sexual desire and fear.

Humans as well display this instincts but in a complex form, though most theories agree that the motivation for humans come from primordial instincts such as self-image, desire to belong, love, trust, contol. There are diverse ways through which motivation can be manipulated. It has been observed by researchers that eating for instance goes beyond the fundamental need of a creature to achieve homeostasis there are some other factors which influence hunger and they are circadian rhythm, availability of food, cost and palatability of food.

Abstract motivation can be manipulated, as proven by concept of goal contagion; adoption of goals unconsciously based on the goals set by others. In their opinion, this principle also applies to sex, food, sleep and drinking. Focus here could be on affective, cognitive, social, moral and neural development. Researchers who work with children, often use unique research techniques either in natural setting or when carrying out experimental tasks.

The task here can either take the form of fun activities and games which children usually enjoy. This set of tasks has enabled researchers in developing techniques which can be used in the study of the mental development of a child. To aid their research, developmental psychologists have developed several psychological theories.

Psychology is developed through treatments mostly via Skype. Specific time and space of Skype communication provides the confidence that client needs. Also it gives privacy, safety and continuance. This therapy lasts between 50 and 60 minutes, except if client needs or want more. Duration of the treatment depends on specific history, circumstances, life quality, motivation. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom , the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of A day will come when we shall see During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.

In , advocating the creation of a European economic union , British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established In , the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations , precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March , with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a " Council of Europe " which would bring the European nations together to build peace.

After World War II , European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent. At , square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area.

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Sweden has a total population of It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen.

Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia ; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers. Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway.

The capital city is Stockholm , the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the member unicameral Riksdag.

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Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in , which Sweden left in When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century.

Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in , when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War , albeit Sweden has since moved towards cooperation with NATO.

Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.

The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD.


In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th.

Czech Republic The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78, square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic , with It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development.

The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.

In , the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. The charitable clerics emerged with Christianity. The "professional" wound healers evolved from the needs of the military, later to merge with the early barber surgeons. Traces of scientific traditions, the Salerno school and early European university medicine can be found in local texts, but there is no evidence of any university educated doctor practising in Trondheim before the 17th century.

Clinical research involving minors in international and serbian regulations. Participation in clinical trials can be useful for the health of a person, in who it is conducted, but it does not have to be - it can even be harmful. Therefore, primary motive to accept such risk is humanity and human wish to contribute to the progress of medicine ; this is expressed by personal consent. The consent, however, can be an expression of personal humanity, and for this, it is not logical that someone can give consent on behalf of someone else, as it is done by a legally authorized representative on behalf of a minor.

Therefore, authors raise 3 questions: What are the reasons to consider representative's consent acceptable? How should a model of regulations look like in order to provide the most complete possible protection to a minor? Is actual regulation of minors' position within international and Serbian law, analyzed here by authors for their specific solutions, acceptable? Representative's consent is acceptable only for therapeutic research, because these can bring benefits to everyone's health, including a minor in which those are conducted - this is an acceptable secondary motive of participation in the research.

Expression of humanity on other's behalf, typical for non-therapeutic research, is not acceptable; this makes ban of minors' participation in non-therapeutic research more appropriate regulation model. International regulations are not in accordance to results presented in the paper for allowing participation of minors both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. Serbian regulation is closer to the most acceptable regulation model. Full Text Available The organic production in Serbian enclaves in Kosovo has a great potential based on the extensive production mostly in hilly-mountainous areas with rich and convenient environment for the organic production of medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables, wine, honey etc.

The enclave can realise a high income, and thereby also an economic basis for the sustainable development of multifunctional agricultural holdings in Serbian enclaves, by the production and sale of organic products on local markets. Empirical research was carried out on a spatial sample of respondents, by a personal communication technique using the questionnaire as an instrument of research method. Goal of the research is to discover the preferences, motives, attitudes and interests of consumers for buying the organic products, based on a defined survey to recognise the basic features of supply and the demand of organic agricultural and food products.

After analysing the conducted survey, we have discovered that the organic food market in Serbian enclaves in Kosovo has not been sufficiently developed; it is necessary to expand the range of organic agriculture products and a constant supply is required, better marketing, and better information and education of consumers in order to raise supply to a higher level.

The external sector of the Serbian economy. Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity.

Since , the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

Serbian crisis: How to reflect about it? Full Text Available In this article, which is just an initial paper within a few-year-long research, we are trying to identify causes of the crisis which the Serbian state and the Serb people experience - not just in the last few years or decades, but, as we believe, already for centuries.

The main problem is Serbs' long-lasting incapability to consolidate both: the national identity and a national state, which is caused by permanent instability of Serbian history, absence of an active attitude toward their own tradition and a lack of notion of self-virtue which dominate the Serbian national "character". There are two main difficulties of the present day Serbian crisis: the fact that our people and their state are not well-fitted to the contemporary world and its civilization, which is, as a matter fact, quite a permanent issue in modern history of the Serbs, as well as the loss of vitality, which in the past at least substituted the poor success in "socialization" in the world ruled by major nations.

This dual shortcoming is a very unfavorable prerequisite for facing challenges which are doubtlessly expecting our, to say it with Plessner, "uncompleted nation". Suretyship in Serbian and comparative legal systems. Full Text Available The author has compared the institute of suretyship in Serbian law and other comparative legal systems, both continental and common-law.

With the development of economy, these instruments of creditor's protection in the contractual relationship have gained full promotion. The analysis of the similarities and differences in the treatment of suretyship implies a relationship between the European legal systems. Galeata: chronic migraine independently considered in a medieval headache classification. Background Chronic migraine is a quite recent concept. However, there are descriptions suggestive of episodic migraine since the beginning of scientific medicine. We aim to review main headache classifications during Classical antiquity and compared them with that proposed in the 11th century by Constantine the African in his Liber Pantegni, one of the most influential texts in medieval medicine.

Method We have carried out a descriptive review of Henricum Petrum's Latin edition, year What Is Medieval European Literature? Economy or chrematistics: Serbian case. Darwinism, disenfranchising the largest population, has created an entire class of poor, who are now struggling to realize their right to work, confirms the emptiness of neoliberal democracy.

As a result of chrematistics in transit societis 'capitalism without capitalists' is created Mladen Lazic in which the capital, grabed during social conflicts, mediated by political elites, by which the redistribution of accumulated social wealth ended up largely in private hands. If proved, and it is, that the current neo-liberal approach and form paradigm does not give the expected, and so the required results, then the need to search for a new paradigm of development and more prominent.

We need one another, a different view of society and especially its development, freed from the constraints and domination of the theory and methodology of the global powers imposed as the only desirable required. So, we need a self-reflective approach to social issues especially in orthodox societies. It is a request that it turned to itself and see their potential and opportunities. This paper is an attempt to draw attention to the devastating consequences of chrematistics in the world, and especially in our society, but also to make an effort to search for the 'principle of hope' and point out the different possible directions of development of Serbian society.

We are convinced that, as the basis of Western civilization with the neo-liberal development model is the social doctrine of Catholicism, Orthodox civilization, which can and should be the centerpiece and developer 'planetrly humanism' Danilo Z. Two medieval doctors: Gilbertus Anglicus cc and John of Gaddesden Biographies of medieval English doctors are uncommon and fragmentary.

This paper brings together the known details of their lives, compiled from extant biographies and from internal references in their texts. The primary records of their writings exist in handwritten texts and thereafter in incunabula from the time of the invention of printing in The record of the lives of these two medieval physicians can be expanded, as here, by the general perspective of the life and times in which they lived. Gilbertus Anglicus, an often-quoted physician-teacher at Montpellier, wrote a seven-folio Compendium medicinae in He described pioneering procedures used later in the emergent disciplines of anaesthetics, cosmetic medicine and travel medicine.

Gilbertus' texts, used extensively in European medical schools, passed in handwritten copies from student to student and eventually were printed in Its detailed text is an exemplar of the mixture of received Hippocratic and Galenic lore compounded by medieval astronomy and religious injunction, which mixture was the essence of medieval medicine.

The writings of both these medieval English physicians formed part of the core curriculum that underpinned the practice of medicine for the next years. Making medieval art modern. Full Text Available Janet T. Russian Medieval Military Architecture. Russian chronicles are full of reports of the building of towns , of their siege and defence.

In Ancient Russian the word town meant not a town in the modern sense, but only a fortified settlement as distinct from an unfortified one. Thus the concept town applied to medieval towns proper and to citadels, feudal castles and even fortified villages. Every population centre with a wall round it was called a town. Moreover, until the 17th century this word was frequently applied to mean the fortifications themselves. This article is a literary research and preliminary examination to a unique interaction between Jews and Sufism that taken place in medieval Islamic ruling.

In the face of the present antagonistic posture of Jews and Muslims relationship that dominates the public sphere, in history, there are some examples of interaction of the two people beyond confictual narrative. One of them is Jewish mysticism that adopted Sufism into their spiritual ideal, which took place in the medieval era. We might Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland. It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian.

Full Text Available Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian In the case of affirmation modality the speakers transform their utterances by stressing or attributing a positive value as an additional component added to the semantic structure of a proposition. This type of affirmative polarization is triggered in opposition to negation or hypothetically negative contexts. The goal of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand to compare and contrast affirmative periphrastic constructions in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian and, on the other hand, to ascertain what these constructions reveal regarding the organization of grammatical categories in general and the status of affirmation modality as a coherent and homogenous category with a linguistic validity.

Motives for food choice among Serbian consumers. People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire FCQ , an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of respondents of different age groups. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden.

Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP.

This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult. Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church and , is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions.

The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit.

Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times.

Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about , came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created.

Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the. Full Text Available Using original documents from the Russian State Military Historical Archive, many of which are introduced for the first time, the author reveals details of creation and activities of the Serbian Volunteer Corps formed from captured soldiers and officers of the Austro-Hungarian army inOdessain the Summer The same autumn it received a baptism of fire in Dobruja fighting in the separate corps of the Russian army under the command of General Zayonchkovsky.

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The author, contrary to the popular opinion of Serbian historians, shows that the call to join the First Serbian division did not arouse mass enthusiasm among the prisoners of war both Serbs and representatives of other Yugoslav nations because of well-founded fears for their close relatives living in the Dual Monarchy and a fairly comfortable stay in the Russian captivity. At the same time, the author emphasizes that this military unit, commanded by officers of the Serbian regular army, was considered by the political leadership ofSerbiaas the basis of the future armed forces of the new state ofYugoslavia.

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The article shows that the events of the Russian Revolution of influenced the future fate of this military formation. Many of its soldiers later found themselves on different sides of the front in the Russian civil war. A special attention is payed to the interethnic conflict erupted in the corps between the Serbs on the one side and the Croats and Slovenes on the other. The author introduces a significant body of primary documents showing the nuances of relations in the corps between representatives of various Yugoslav nations.

The article emphasizes that the relationship of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes within the. Historical tradition in Serbian genre literature. Full Text Available This paper discusses two Serbian science-fiction stories with a special emphasis on the motives in their narrative structure; the motive analysis is focused on those motives that represent a transposition of 'historical tradition' elements. The key words connecting images appearing in this context are: fear of losing national identity and a strategy of resistance towards those, who presumably, want to 'take over' the identity.

In this sense, a return to 'the historical tradition', in the analyzed texts, aims to reassess certain past models indicating at the same time those that have successfully served and endured as historical models in this discourse. Online Corporate Learning in the Serbian Market. Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine corporate learning relationsbetween companies, and to investigate the possibility ofconverting of traditional corporate trainings and meetings to modernmeans of communication and education, with particular referenceto the application of online training and the videoconferencesystem in the process.

In addition, the objective of this paperis to examine how well informed companies are about the technologyand its introduction into everyday business practice. Theresearch underlines the results of the analyses concerning thepractical aspect of videoconferences both in Serbian companiesand in foreign ones operating through branches in Serbia. Monitoring process hygiene in Serbian retail establishments. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities.

Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market. Population aging is a feature of all countries in the world. According to statistics, the Republic of Serbia is one of the countries with the majority of the elderly. Taking this into account, are articles on the elderly well represented in domestic medical journals?

The aim of the paper was to determine whether there was a sufficient number of articles on the elderly in domestic medical journals. The articles on the elderly were searched using search engines in domestic and foreign medical journals for the last 5 years compared with the number of articles on children in the same publications for the same period.

In the Serbian Citation Index, 11 articles on the topic of the elderly, and on children were registered. In Srpski arhivza celokupno lekarstvo, there was registered only one article on the topic of the elderly, and 30 on children. In Vojnosanitetskipregled, 2 articles on the elderly and 13 on children were registered p articles on the elderly and articles on children; in the JAMA, there were 63 articles on the elderly and articles on children; and in The Lancet, in the last five years, 46 articles on the elderly and articles on children were published.

The themes of the elderly were rarely represented in Serbian medical journals. This has reduced the interest of physicians in medical problems of this growing population of patients and further sent them away from making standards in the diagnosis and treatment of the elderly. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront.

Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised. The Image of Medieval Woman. California State University offered a course concerning the roles and positions of women in medieval society as depicted in Middle High German literature. The course was open to all undergraduate students and required no prerequisites or knowledge of German. The content and structure of the course are outlined.

Serbian dialectology in the past, present and future. Owing to their exchange of opinions, the conceptions in classifying Serbian dialects evolved over the period more noticeably than in the whole of earlier or later research. Though certain milestones were hit in the mentioned period many blank spots were removed from the dialectal maps; dozens of monographic descriptions were published on individual speech types; valuable initial results were achieved in the domain of urban dialectology; valuable studies were completed in the domain of dialectal lexicography and onomasticon, many questions were answered in Serbian historical dialectology, etc.

In order to pass the final judgement on the relevant matters of the discipline, it is necessary to define the areals of some phonological features on the territory of Serbia and eastern Bosnia, details that earlier researchers have missed. To asses the scientific value of the practical medical fragments found in the Cairo Genizah 10th century , as a useful source for ethnopharmacological purposes in exposing rare and usually inaccessible original medieval practical knowledge of medicinal substances to present-day researchers , and to reconstruct the practical drugs and their uses.

A methodology distinguishing between theoretical about fragments and practical medical knowledge about fragments was created and used. The information regarding the practical medicinal substances was extracted from prescriptions , lists of drugs 70 and few letters of physicians.

The reconstructed lists of practical and theoretical drugs allow us to recognize and quantify the gap between them in medieval times We propose that the data obtained from ancient prescriptions is comparable to ethnopharmacological surveys. With the wealth of information meticulously assembled from these time capsules we expect to make a significant contribution to contemporary efforts at locating modern drugs in ancient roots and gauging their feasibility.

Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Full Text Available People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire FCQ, an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of respondents of different age groups.

Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, and therefore the analysis of motives for food choice is considered a useful tool for the planning of more efficient public policies and interventions aimed at influencing healthier eating habits. Hence the results can be useful for researchers as well as for public institutions which deal with creating the strategy of public health or businessmen who produce and sell food products, because knowing consumer behaviour is necessary for product success on the market.

Anthropocentric language theory and Serbian case systems. The above definition construes case as a universal category characteristics of all the languages sharing the nomen vs verbum opposition. Particular cases are conceived as primarily semantically motivated. Results of the analyses of morphological syncretism's and of syntactic exponents of the NPs-dependence found in Serbian case systems support the above tentative interpretation of the case as a semantic and syntactic category.

The impact of ethnocentrism on Serbian consumers. Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of consumer ethnocentrism on the intention to buy local products by Serbian consumers. Modern business trends and market changes are followed by new trends in consumer behaviour. Many changes in all segments of economy and society occurred in last few years in Republic of Serbia.

The globalization of markets presents considerable challenges and opportunities for domestic and international marketers. All these have been influencing on people differentiation concerning ethnocentrism. Medieval monsters, in theory and practice. The past two decades have witnessed a plethora of studies on the medieval monster. These studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of religion, art, literature, and science in the Middle Ages. However, a tendency to treat the medieval monster in purely symbolic and psychological terms ignores the lived experiences of impaired medieval people and their culture's attitudes toward them.

With the aid of recent insights provided by disability studies, this article aims to confront "real" medieval monsters--e. On the composition and processing of precious metals mined in Medieval Serbia. Notably, that the residue left after the process of obtaining fine silver was copper. Even the price of the refining process is specified. Besides gold, it also contained copper and, moreover, the ratio of the two per pound is specified.

Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to He was born in in Novi Sad. Even as a student of medicine he was active in scientific work, which resulted in a paper entiteled "The fine structure of the liver," later published in one of the most eminent medical journals in Europe. He completed the study of medicine in Vienna.

He did not accept the position at the Medical Faculty in Vienna, and returned to Novi Sad, where he quickly gained an excellent reputation as a physician. He participated in the founding of the Serbian National Theatre in , he was also one of the most active contributors of Matica Srpska, wrote many articles, critics and reviews, and was also regarded as the founder of aesthetic romanticism in Serbs. At that time, when he was only 30 years old, he wrote about a brand-new art - photography. Issues, Solving, Lesson. The most efficient techniques and lessons learned from other projects of the RRRFR Program as well as new unique technical decisions were used.

Two big challenges were resolved during implementation of Serbian Project: 1 preparation of damaged fuel located in the packages unsuitable for transport, taking into account insufficient infrastructure of RA reactor site and 2 removal of large amount of fuel in one multimodal shipment through several transit countries. The main attention was paid to safety justification of all activities.

All approvals were obtained in Russia, Serbia and transit countries. Special canisters were designed for transportation of specific RA reactor fuel of small dimensions, unidentifiable, damaged due to corrosion. The canister design was selected to be untight - it was the most expedient decision for that case from safety perspective. The technology and a set of equipment were designed for remote removal of the fuel from the existing package aluminum barrels and reactor channels and placing of the fuel into the new canisters.

After fabrication and assembling of the equipment theoretical and practical training of the personnel was performed. Fuel repackaging took about 5 months. Special requirements to drying the packages and composition of gaseous medium inside were justified to ensure fire and explosion safety. Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Magic in Scandinavia. The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals.

The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn Medieval Romances: "Perceval" to "Monty Python. A selection of romances from medieval literature can be used successfully in undergraduate literature classes to trace the appearance and relevance of medieval themes, motifs, and characters in works of modern poetry, fiction, and film.

New scholarly editions, historiographies, translations, and modernizations give both teachers and students more…. Great War legacies in Serbian culture. Over time, Serbian literature and fine arts sustained an unfinished dialogue of the past and the present, merging the individual voices with the collective voices to construct the national narrative. The very title of the novel contained a powerful reference to the migration, and its illustrious historic leader which has not been discussed or explored before.

Achievement of Serbian eighth grade students in science. Full Text Available The paper considers the main results and some educational implications of the TIMSS assessment conducted in Serbia in the fields of the science achievement of Serbian eighth grade students and the science curriculum context of their achievement.

There were students in the sample. It was confirmed that Serbian eighth graders had made average scale score of points in the science, and with this achievement they are placed in the zone of the top of low international benchmarking level, very close to the point of intermediate benchmark.

The average science achievement of the Serbian eighth graders is somewhat below the general international science achievement. The best results were achieved in the science content domain of "chemistry", and the lower results in the content domain of "environmental science". Across the defined science cognitive domains, it was confirmed that the Serbian students had achieved the best results in cognitive domain of "factual knowledge" and weaker results in "reasoning and analysis".

The achieved results raise many questions about contents of the science curriculum in Serbia, its overall quality and basic characteristics of its implementation. These results can be eligibly used to improve the science curricula and teaching in Serbian primary school. Full Text Available This paper discusses the conceptual dynamicity of English compound lexemes and their Serbian equivalents as reflected in compound lexemes in traffic engineering.

The morphological structure and semantics of compound lexemes are considered, as well as strategies for translating English metaphorical compound lexemes into Serbian. The analysis reveals that Serbian cannot cope with the dynamic nature of traffic engineering terminology in English, and that Anglicisms, synonyms of different polysemous terms and vague conceptual determinations are characteristic of Serbian terminological equivalents.

Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law. Full Text Available This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art.

Subsequently, the author turns his attention to the solutions found in Serbian double taxation treaties which are methodologically divided into three groups. One of them stands out as the most notable, being unique in global terms: double taxation treaties which provide for a prohibition of discriminatory treatment based on residence. The author critically addresses the fundamental flaws of the Serbian double taxation treaty policy which are recognized thorough a detailed scrutiny of the relevant norms of these international agreements.

Process of globalization and basic traits of Serbian national character. Information exchange, scientific achievements and technology are nowadays world process. Economy increasingly becomes global. Serbia and Serbian people have their own specific character, which is defined by three significant characteristics: sovereignty and territorial integrity, aspirations to social justice, the rule of people and democracy. The creators of global society should take into consideration these three important characteristics of Serbian people with which Serbian political elite is to familiarize them, for the sake of more rapid and complete process of integration of Serbs into global processes from both Serbia and its neighboring countries would benefit.

The stages of modernism in Serbian music. Full Text Available In order to consider this topic, it was first necessary to discuss certain problems of terminology and periodisation relating to musical modernism in general. It is already familiar the extent to which the terms "new music", "modernist", "contemporary" and "avant-garde" music have been used interchangeably, as synonyms. For this reason, it was first important to outline the period of musical modernism as almost generally accepted, which is regarded as an epoch comprising three different periods: I period of early modernism —, announced by a break with later romanticism and a turn towards French Impressionism, Austro-German Expressionism and Russian "folkloric Expressionism"; II period of "classical modernism" — that witnessed a diffusion of neo-classicism and serialism; III period of "high modernism" — characterized by highly experimental compositional techniques such as integral serialism and aleatoricism.

The second part of the article proposes a periodisation of Serbian musical modernism, which is divided into four stages. The second stage — was marked by a group of composers who studied in Prague and assimilated certain progressive compositional techniques such as free tonality, atonality dodecaphony, microtonality and athematicism.

Virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel. Full Text Available The paper sets out to explore the perspectives and strategies of virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel in order to illustrate radical changes in the concept of reality and writers' concern with the fidelity to experience. A new surge of the so-called digital realism emerges simultaneously with the increase of awareness that the line between our digital selves and our real-world selves has become blurred and difficult to explain, while new technologies are required to go beyond what our human senses can encompass and deliver.

The fictional realism of the digital age will also commit itself to young or middle-aged individuals that passionately attempt to define their aims and objectives so that they could fit into a newly constructed and acquired concept of reality. Their everyday life in a postmillennial world includes many intersecting empirical and virtual realities: love, career and sex take place in a dimension which ignores geography and physical distance and ultimately alters the concepts of time and space, as well the concepts of privacy and intimacy.

The paper intends to examine the ways new digital technologies contribute to representations of reality in the novels of both accomplished and aspiring authors whose novels deal with ways of life amid social networks. The novels we analyzed show that the distinction between the virtual and the real world narrows, as the narratives range from intimate confession in letters and journals to tweets, notes and statuses, introducing verbal and structural experimental practices which involve shifting points of view.

A network analysis can be divided into micro and macro network analyses: The micro network analysis involves the constructional characteristics of the verbal phrases, while the macro network analysis pertains to a group of words with conceptual similarities.

In other words, this network analysis is an attempt to investigate the meaning of a language unit integrating conceptual and morphosyntactic approaches. This integration method may represent both the inherent semantic structure and the status of the unit in the whole lexicon more effectively than the decompositional approach. This method is similar to WordNet in a way, but it is different in its method of investigation.

Simultaneously this method helps to reduce the number of subjective interpretations on the part of the researcher. Using the Russian National Corpus is another way to examine existing theories and semantic descriptions. This research intends to find a way of testing the current theories and of describing the use of a language unit more accurately and empirically. At the heart of Berlinsko okno is the idea that, not unlike post Germany, Serbia should confront its recent past, especially its role in the wars of Yugoslav succession.

Emphasizing the task of not forgetting the victims of the violence of the s, the novel provocatively engages in the current debate among Serbian writers and literary critics about the social role and political relevance of literature today. This article discusses the nature of some of the mathematical ideas entertained by Daniil Kharms and other former members of the OBERIU and chinari group in the s. This interest is deliberately and programmatically amateurish, and is socially opposed to the institutionalization of knowledge at the same time as it is epistemologically opposed to rationalism in the broad sense of the term.

This article for the first time examines the poetic voice of a fictitious Symbolist woman poet and literary diva, Cherubina de Gabriak , created by poets Maximilian Voloshin and Elizaveta Dmitrieva. The author focuses on the personal subtext of Cherubina de Gabriak's poetry, which made a living poet out of an artificial mask: the themes of love and poetic self-determination. Dobroliubov and N. Chernyshevsky is built around two potentially conflicting principles. In his view, Krzhizhanovsky subjects the nature of reality and our sense of the mind's activity to radical intellectual experimentation.

The myriad short stories and novellas created by Russian Modernist author Sigizmund Krzhizhanovsky distill the scientific, philosophical, and literary essence of his era and encapsulate it in prose filled with pyrotechnic wordplay. Often framed as a prodigious yet ultimately unsuccessful talent besieged by phobias, dogged by fickle fate and doomed by mystically self-fulfilling prophecies, Krzhizhanovsky was actually finely attuned to problems that were of paramount importance to his literary contemporaries.

In particular, Krzhizhanovsky was intrigued and inspired by scientific and philosophical theories surrounding the existence of a fourth dimension, including those of Minkowski, Uspensky, and Bergson, and by popular experiments in optics and the nature of light. Among the protagonists in his stories are many starving, idealistic writers and inventors, as well as figures from Western philosophy whom Krzhizhanovsky has fictionalized into his imaginative narratives. In a key essay from , Krzhizhanovsky uses a systematized series of schemata, description, and reasoning to position theater in a model of levels of consciousness that relates the theater to both the Continental philosophical tradition and to everyday life.

Sigizmund Krzhizhanovsky — is best known today as a phantasmagorical, metaphysical prose writer in the style of Zamyatin or Bulgakov. In his own time, his prose, negatively reviewed by Maxim Gorky in and largely unpublished, was hardly known at all. He also wrote plays himself. Ten of his stage scenarios survive as of , three have been published in Russian and one in English.

All of these interests were borderline unorthodox for the Stalinist Shakespeare industry, which published him warily. The Shavians were a smaller, more flexible group. First, it establishes links to celebrated Russian authors such as Dostoevsky and Gogol, in whose work the Easter tale and its themes play a vital role, as a way to explore issues of narrative and cultural authority. The present study attempts to show how Petrushevskaia negotiates the boundaries of this paradox and the Easter tale genre itself as she expresses both hope in and the failure of its true function — to effect a kind of resurrection of meaning in the atomized society of the Stagnation.

In desperate straits and vulnerable to predators such as Anna Fyodorovna, Varenka turns to her only male friend and benefactor, Devushkin, for a means of escape: marriage and the protection it would grant her. She carefully cultivates her feelings for her older neighbor, eventually coming to love and respect him in a more-than-platonic way. Devushkin, however, is too insecure and downtrodden to see in her actions anything but rejection, thereby forcing Varenka to turn to Bykov in the end.

Her marriage to the man who despoiled her serves as the final evidence that Varenka would have accepted a proposal from Devushkin, had he ever offered one. Who is Prince Myshkin? This question is central to The Idiot. In the novel, the question is bifurcated into questions of identity and diagnosis, which are inextricably bound together.

The title of the novel itself certainly points to the importance of his diagnosis in regard to his identity. Dostoevsky was well read in the sphere of medicine and was quite knowledgeable on every aspect of epilepsy, including prognosis, treatment, and related conditions. This article applies this body of knowledge to The Idiot. This paper traces these additional allusions and also asks why they are there in the first place beyond their obvious function to parody Wagner opera, not least the librettos.

The assumption is that Nabokov wanted to convey more than his disrespect for Wagner's music and poetry. Pnin intimates that ideological myth-making produces convictions which are neither intellectually, nor ethically, valid, even when presented in haunting film cadres, such as found in Lang's The Nibelung. German-born Dr. Why is he loyal to Russian Pnin though? How does the Russian literature taught by Pnin fit into the program of Hagen's journal Europa nova and the planned course Wingless Europe? Hagen is not the only character in the novel to yield to ideological seductions of the mythopoeic kind.

The point of Nabokov's irony is that much academe is non-academic for a variety of dubious reasons. Due to insufficient research into idiolects in Shakespeare and its controversial nature, Pasternak was compelled to come up with his own solutions for speech individualization, which are dependent on his perceptions of the characters. This essay examines the popularization of Russian museum culture via periodical press during the second half of the nineteenth century.

This dialogue, uniquely preserved by the contemporary press, allows us to document how the museum age was written. It also demonstrates that Russian museums and exhibitions were fashioned in the popular press as much as they were by architects, curators, and patrons. While exhibitions and museums proper take care of material objects, the discourse constructed around them deals with the portrayal of these objective realities in light of national ideologies, public opinion, and personal preferences.

A historically grounded analysis of this discourse gives insight into the larger process of culture making via writing. Between the two modes of representation which are at work in the museum—the visual and the verbal—layer upon layer of meaning have been created over time. If Dostoevsky points to salvation through truth, Sologub points to perdition through self-deception. Repressed guilt like redemption in both cases is conveyed indirectly through an artistic code of doubling and parallels. Like Raskolnikov, Login commits an ax murder and escapes the consequences of his crime through a series of fortuitous circumstances; only he does not confess and accept punishment like his predecessor did.

It seems that Login is free to pursue his own definition of happiness unimpeded by any moral restrictions whatsoever. But as Login walks toward that vaguely happy horizon, some ominous suggestions follow the pretense of his buoyant stride. Her longest poetic cycle, Lavinia consists of seventy-eight short poems written from the perspective of a fictional nun, at times deeply religious, at times heretical.

Throughout the book, Shvarts brings together disparate worlds: Christianity and Buddhism; the temple and the body; the ritualized past and the individualized present. I argue that this urge to integrate, combined with a desire to value and preserve the distinct parts, defines Lavinia and the spiritual journey which it contains.

This research study describes how English L1 readers use grammatical knowledge when reading L2 Russian informational texts. The study uses introspective verbal protocols i. Although both reader factors breadth and depth of L2 lexical knowledge, background knowledge, motivation, strategies, etc. The article considers in detail how readers render two frequent features of formal Russian writing strings of adnominal genitives and Russian passive constructions. This article describes a study on the relative effects of explicit information on the processing of nominative and accusative case by L2 learners of Russian.

Forty-four participants were divided into two groups: those who received explicit information prior to a treatment involving processing structured input and those who did not. The main assessment was trials to criterion how many items it took before the participants began to interpret sentences correctly. Our results show no significant effects for explicit information. The present essay identifies the topos of our travelers and the English as a prism that illuminates the rise of a vacation mentality in imperial Russia.

Although these texts are seventy years apart, I argue that the way in which Karamzin emphasizes the process of crossing the border from Russia to Europe in Letters of a Russian Traveler serves as a reference point for Dostoevsky in his Winter Notes on Summer Impressions. In both texts I explore the relationship between Russian identity and the phenomena of writing and travel. For Karamzin, travel is a matter of choice and a cosmopolitan endeavor that reaffirms his Europeanized Russian identity; for Dostoevsky, the perceived lack of any core Russian identity and the impossibility of accessing a Russian homeland renders travel an inescapable fate for the Russian educated elite.

While Chekhov has often been described as an objective recorder of reality, his stories probe what and how one can in fact know. The author figures this problem in his very mode of narration. Whether one can present the reader with knowledge of the world through narrative parallels the problem of whether one can know another person, or anything outside of oneself.

Chudakov and others have argued ; yet in his middle period in particular, the author undermines the capacity of objective narration to convey knowledge and at key moments allows subjective notes to predominate. Building on distinctions made by Hans Georg Gadamer in Truth and Method , the author considers knowledge in terms of engagement with cultural forms, especially musical and ritual key cases for Gadamer.

As subjective narration here implies a removal of the divide between subject and object, Chekhov uses musical performance to imply a removal at least imagined of boundaries between characters. Fateful Eggs condenses the science of eugenics into a ray of electric light that promises new and improved human beings but that delivers only monstrous distortions of nature.

To make his novel appear ideologically correct, Ilchenko alludes to the Soviet hierarchy of nationalities in conspicuous ways, but then turns this hierarchy on its head with unexpected, ironic twists of his plot. The novel influenced the reading public at a crucial, uncertain point in the formation of Ukrainian identity. Published at the end of the thaw, when a new crackdown on national expression was heralded by the press, Kozats'komu rodu inspired readers to continue asserting their pride in being Ukrainian.

Many ideas encoded in the novel also anticipate samvydav protests of the 60s and 70s. Plots Gene Fitzgerald Michael C. Finke and Michael Holquist, ed. Johnson Barry P. Scherr, James Bailey, and Vida T. Johnson, ed. Pasternak Barry P. Scherr Olga Bakich. Skomp and Benjamin M. Johnson Hanna Chuchvaha. Nicholas Marina Frolova-Walker. Rubchak, ed. Plots Gene Fitzgerald Lewis Bagby. Johnson Deborah A. Martinsen and Olga Maiorova, ed. Dostoevsky in Context. Elizabeth Blake Aileen M. Johnson Alexander Etkind.

Chosen Places: Constructing New Jerusalems in Slavia Orthodoxa | brill

Russian Literature Since Barry P. Scherr Jack V. Haney, ed. The Complete Folktales of A. Afanas'ev Linda J. Ivanits Fyodor Dostoevsky. Notes from the Underground. Kirsten Lodge. Roberts, guest editors. Vilnius between Nations, — Curtis G. Murphy Irina Kor Chahine, ed. Hickey Lars Kleberg. Scherr Harriet Murav and Gennady Estraikh, ed. Oblivion David J. Galloway Sergey Gandlevsky. Pratt Ewa Mazierska and Michael Goddard, ed. White Michelle Facos and Thor J. Mednick, ed. French and Russian in Imperial Russia. White Harai Golomb. Slavica Occitania. Johnson Halina Filipowicz. Pratt Ala Zuskin Perelman.

Two Fates. Garza Mikhail N. Epstein, Alexander A. Genis, Slobodanka M. Giustino, Catherine J. Plum, and Alexander Vari, ed. Johnson Vitaly Leonidovich Katayev. Lithuanian Root List Mark J. Elson Lidia Federica Mazzitelli. Tvorchestvo A. Chekhova v svete sistemnogo podkhoda: kollektivnaia monografiia Marija Fedjanina Julia Friedman. Adrian Wanner Marianna S. Scherr Pushkin, Alexander. Forrester and Martha M.

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Kelly, ed. Poems of Osip Mandelstam. Natalia Vygovskaia Teffi. Selected Poems Barry P. Scherr Victor Martinovich. Six English Retranslations of M. Who, What Am I? Denner Amy D. Dostoevsky and the Epileptic Mode of Being U. Bowie Gavriel Shapiro. Blackwell Magnus Ljunggren. Cardinal Points Literary Journal, vols. Selected Poems. Letters from Vladivostok, — David J. The Russian Cinema Reader. Towards a Theory of Montage. Coates Marc Nichanian. Whose Bosnia? Katsell Julia Bekman Chadaga.

Anna Karenina U. Bowie Vladimir Wosniuk ed. Poltory komnaty Joanna Madloch Maxim D.

Levitt Rosalind P. Blakesley and Margaret Samu, ed. Johnson Alfred A. Ransel, Mary Cavender, and Karen Petrone, ed. Lewis Pietro U. Elson I. Eksperimental'nyi modifikatsionnyi slovar' russkogo iazyka na materiale glagolov zvuchaniia Richard Robin Lara Ryazanova-Clarke, ed. Kagan, Anna S. Kudyma, and Frank J. Shraer Shrayer. Bunin i Nabokov: istoriia sopernichestva U. Coleman, ed. Kosicki, ed. Levitt Mikhail Shishkin. Maidenhair Muireann Maguire Vjenceslav Novak. Launer Malte Rolf. Soviet Mass Festivals, — Elena V. Baraban Katerina Clark. Nicholas Agata Pyzik. Haney, trans. Hughes, Thomas A.

Koster, and Richard Taruskin, ed. Coates Lucia Aiello. Scherr James Hodkinson and John Walker, ed. Johnson Mark Andryczyk. Cox Larissa Fialkova and Maria Yelenevskaya. Elson Horace G. Eckhoff, Laura A. Scherr Jonathan Stone. Katz Maxim D. Roskies and Naomi Diamant. Poems Stanley Bill Radmila Gorup, ed. Wittelsbach James Hodkinson and John Walker, ed.

Rolland Irina Sandomirskaia. Ocherki kriticheskoi teorii i biopolitiki iazyka Olga Mukhortova Edmund Pech. Ein Staat — Eine Sprache? Sviatoi protiv L'va. Levitt Anindita Banerjee. Scherr Elena Glazov-Corrigan. Cooper, Jr. An Anthology of Croatian Literature K. Wittelsbach Teresa Murjas, ed. Galloway Svetlana Adonyeva and Laura J. Launer Irina Ivanova, ed. Sheldon, — Barry. Norris and Willard Sunderland, eds.